II. THE EVOLUTION OF MATTER
With respect to the origin and history of matter, the two most widely accepted cosmogonical ideas; the Big Bang and the Steady State Theories present extreme opposite views in their accounting for the origin and abundance of the different elements in the universe. According to laboratory experiments and astronomical observations 99.999% of all matter in the observable universe is made up between the two simplest elements, Hydrogen and Helium.
The total abundance of all the other 101 known heavier elements make up the remaining 0.001%. On the one hand, according to the Big Bang Theory as George Gamov renown expert puts it, all elements, as they are in existence today, were produced in the first half hour of the life of the universe in the primordial atomic pressure-cooker.
On the other hand, Bondi, Gold and Hoyle's Steady State Theory declares, that all elements of matter are in continuous creation everywhere in the universe. Hydrogen is created in inter-stellar space at the rate of one atom per gallon in every 250 million years. The heavier elements are being created in the extreme internal heat of stars and spread through the whole of space mostly by supernova explosions.
Both theories were invented to synchronize with the Theory of the Expanding Universe and with the empirically found abundance of the various elements. The Big Bang Theory leads to an ever thinning universe as the initially created amount of matter expands into greater volumes of space. In the Steady State Theory, the assumed rate of the creation of hydrogen is carefully adjusted to keep up with the expansion and thereby achieve a constant density of matter in the universe.
Needless to say, that at the present state of cosmogony and astrophysics, there is no observational, experimental, mathematical or logical verification or disapproval for either of these extreme speculations. Their validity merely comes from their synchronization with the expanding universe hypothesis which itself suffers the same uncertainty. Therefore, the same free credit should be allowed for any newly invented hypothesis which may lie in between the two extremes, or even if it is not adjusted to the requirements of the expanding universe.
With this in mind, let us first consider the fate of solid matter, say a piece of rock, when it is heated to higher and higher temperatures. Rocks are made up of the crystalline lattices of molecules, composed by the atoms of different chemical elements. At low temperature (under 1000° Celsius) the crystalline lattice of the rock is a rigid system and the thermal vibration of the molecules are controlled by the cohesive electromagnetic forces. From the stand point of the kinetic theory of matter, the added heat transforms into kinetic energy in the form of the increasing amplitude of vibrations of the molecules. Over the melting point (1063° C), the molecules still remain strongly attracted to each other, though the thermal agitation is strong enough to dislocate them from the fixed positions in the crystalline lattice, and the rock liquifies. At still higher temperature (2600 C) the liquefied rock reaches its boiling point, the cohesive forces are not able to hold the molecules together anymore, they fly apart in all direction and the rock reaches its gaseous state.
In general, over a few thousand degrees not even the molecules can stay together, but they separate into their constituents; the atoms of pure chemical elements. The violence of thermal collisions at such high temperatures also damages the atoms by chipping off their outer electrons. This thermal ionization becomes more and more pronounced when the temperature rises to hundreds of thousand of degrees and reaches completion at a few million degrees, which is quite common in the interiors of stars. Inside the sun it is about 20 million degrees and the atoms, as such, cease to exist. All electronic shells are completely stripped off, and matter becomes a gaseous mixture of bare nuclei and free electrons, called Plasma.
At temperatures above 10 billion degrees the thermal agitation of the protons and neutrons is great enough to overrule the strong force that keeps them together and the nuclei begin to vaporize. Temperatures of this magnitude may well occur for short periods of time during supernova explosions. At this point, however, the speculation must stop since neither can we imagine higher temperature, nor do we have any plausible idea of the internal structure of the elementary particles. This procedure is called the thermal dissociation of matter and agrees with the assumption of thermodynamics, that the kinetic energy of the elementary particles is proportional to the absolute temperature in all states of matter.
In order to come back to the present state of the universe, the whole procedure can be projected backward, creating a reciprocal sequence, which may be called thermal association.
Starting from the slow cooling of the billion degrees hot proton- neutron- electron-gas, as the individual elementary particles slow down, nuclei and electrons can form. Later, at a given level of the temperature, by the capture of free electrons, atoms can come into existence. As the thermal kinetic energy further decreases, the force-fields of the atoms succeed in creating molecular ties and by the induction of cohesional forces, liquification becomes possible. Finally, in the total domination of the nuclear, atomic and molecular forces, matter solidifies in crystalline-lattices.
Observation proves that this thermal association does happen everywhere in the universe at all times at different temperatures and in various circumstances, parallel to the evolution of the Earth, planets, suns, stars and galaxies.
But the thermal effects on the kinetic energy of the particles is not the only cause for the changes in the states of matter. Besides the rapid and large scale dissociation and association due to heating and cooling, there are other subtle transformations on nuclear and atomic levels, which effect only a small percentage of an elements at a time, proceeding slowly and independently of temperature. - Radioactive decay of certain elements is a special case of dissociation which happens independently from thermal agitation. The radioactivity of different elements manifests different types of radiation in the forms of the continuous emission of a specific particle. It has been found that in the process of disintegration, the expulsion of a particle leaves behind a new system, which is lighter than before and possesses physical and chemical properties quite different from those of the parent element. The number of atoms that disintegrate during a given time interval is in a definite proportion to the atoms initially present.
This proportion is a characteristic constant of the body. For example, one half of a given number of Uranium atoms will decay into something else in four and a half million years. This period of time is called the characteristic Half-life of Uranium and since it decays on its own power, it has been classified as an unstable element. It is evident, however, that the concept of half-life is purely quantitative, expressing a given rate of radioactive dissociation of an element, it merely depends on the sensitivity of our devices and an arbitrarily chosen time-scale whether an element is classified as stable or unstable.
If four and a half million years of half-life represents un-stable, what should then be the higher limit of stability; forty million, four hundred million, or four and a half billion years?! The concept of half-life demonstrates that radioactivity is a random and accidental procedure and could only be measured on statistical basis. If one hundred uranium atoms could be separated and their radioactivity measured, the prediction would be the same; in four and a half million years 50 out of the 100 will disintegrate into something else, but there is no way to foresee which 50 will change and when. In order to even discover radioactivity in a group of 100 atoms, the experimenter should be able to detect the triggering of his counter by an emission, on the average, once in every 90,000 years, but there is still a non-zero probability for two emissions within a trillionth of a second. When it comes to atomic particles, it is impossible to predict how single individuals will behave. All that can be done is to foretell the average behavior of an immense number of particles in a group according to the rules of probability.
Theoretically nothing is infinitely improbable and there is no known reason to assume, that a similarly accidental procedure cannot occur in the opposite direction. After all, how does matter solidify from the plasma all the way to the crystalline structure of matter if not by accidental association of the elementary particles.
Until most recently, the general belief was that the origin of the heavier elements requires immense heat and must happen in a biblical type creation under very extreme circumstances, like in the primeval atom or in Supernova explosions.
The main reason for this belief was the large force of repulsion that exists between protons, which must be overcome in collisions with tremendous velocities in order to get them close enough together for the short range nuclear force of attraction to take charge. In the last few decades, however, research shows more and more results that contradict this belief. The latest discoveries of cold nuclear fusion established the fact, that certain electron-like particles, called muons can catalyze nuclear associations which circumvents the need of high temperatures or extreme velocities entirely. It is experimentally proven that muon-catalyzed cold fusion can take place rapidly at room temperature or even close to absolute zero.
Muons are particles with a negative charge equal to that of the electron but about 207 times more massive. When they are introduced into a chamber containing isotopes of Hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium, some muons form unusually tight associations between the nuclei of two Hydrogen atoms. These nuclei then bond together into one Helium nucleus which ejects the muon, capture some free electrons and become a Helium atom.
The muon in turn goes on to catalyze other fusion reactions. Obviously there is Helium association in the chamber with a reciprocal half-life, which is proportional to the initial number of Hydrogen atoms and the number of muons in a unit volume of space. The present theory about the procedure of muon-catalysis is based on the explanation of molecular cohesion. When atoms collide in a gas, their electrons come close enough that they are captured by the other nucleus and they continue to orbit around both nuclei. The result is an attraction between the two atoms and the formation of a molecule. In the cold fusion muons take over the role of the electrons, but they are much heavier and slower and they can pull the two nuclei close enough together that eventually fusion occurs.
The discovery of muon-catalysis might revitalize a theory proposed by William Prout in 1815. According to his hypothesis, the hydrogen atom, (one proton and one electron) is the basic unit of 'matter' out of which all other elements were compounded. This idea was strongly supported by the repetitious chemical properties of the elements in the periodic table and by the fact that the weights of elements were nearly all multiples of the weight of the hydrogen atom.
Later, however, atoms were discovered that did not fit Prout's hypothesis. For instance, the weight of a chlorine atom has been found thirty-five and one-half times that of the hydrogen atom. Because of this and other discrepancies and since the way out of this difficulty was not known to Prout, his theory was abandoned and never reinstated. However, after the discovery of the third elementary particle of the atom, the neutron, having nearly equal mass with the proton, Prout's controversy were effectively resolved.
It has been found that the chemical properties of an element are determined purely in terms of the number of electrons and protons in the atom, but the number of neutrons in the nucleus, can take a range of different values. In the crucial case of chlorine, with seventeen protons, there can be between sixteen and twenty-two neutrons in the nucleus. Out of these isotopes, only two chlorine atoms with eighteen and twenty neutrons occur to any extent in Nature and there is about three times as many lighter ones in the common mixture of chlorine as heavier ones. This results in exactly the right proportion for Prout's theory, giving an average weight for the chlorine atom; thirty-five and a half times that of the Hydrogen atom.
There is no doubt today that the basic building block of matter is the proton-electron pair but the role of the neutron in the stability of a nucleus is still not known. It has been found however, that under certain conditions, a neutron can disintegrate in the nuclei, changing over to a proton and ejecting an electron. The same happens to a free neutron with a half-life of twelve minutes.
In any case, based on present knowledge, it can hardly be declared that the probability of cold fusion is surely limited to the case of Helium creation or that there is no chance for the accidental association of hydrogen atoms, a cold procedure of building matter to different levels of complexity, similar to Prout's speculation.
In an other department of experimental physics Uranium atoms are bombarded by accelerated neutrons with the result of nuclear fission. - A certain isotope of Uranium, having 92 protons and 143 neutrons (235) by absorbing one of the neutrons, becomes a new isotope with 236 nucleons and splits up in to two equal parts, producing a radioactive isotope of Barium. Since the bombarding is completely random, why does the Uranium atom split in half instead of into different other fractions? According to present theories, the binding energy of medium heavy elements is the strongest, therefore lighter nuclei gain stability by fusion and heavier ones when they break up in fission.
Is there zero probability for a procedure through which two Barium nuclei could fuse into a Uranium 235 atom and eject a neutron, say, with a half-life of 16 million or 160 million years?
It might be useful to assume, that the accidental fusion of matter at any level of complexity is merely a question of the lapse of time and the coincidental effect of a suitable catalyzer, or maybe several of them sequentially or simultaneously.
There is a great inventory of particles with different charges and various masses to take the role of catalyzers and most certainly there is time enough in the life of the Universe. If there was an evolutionary theory of matter based on some thermal or catalytic or some other presently unknown procedure, it would be founded on the probability of an accidental, step by step association of the elements with gradually decreasing chances as matter grows more and more complex. The final equation and the predicted half-life for the evolution of matter through the different elements would be carefully adjusted to synchronize with the empirically found quantities of the natural abundance of the elements and with the presently believed age of the Universe.
This will be then a kind of mutational evolution of matter from the random state of kinetic energy of the Aether toward the organized and condensed forms of elementary particles, atoms, molecules and conglomerates of them; a procedure in the opposition to the arrow of entropy; an accidental evolutionary tendency exposed to a natural selection through the radioactive dissociation of the unstable elements; a Darwinistic cosmogony?!
Correlating the kinematic theory of Rotational Gravitation with the three groups of ideas, suggested above, consider the following hypothesis:
The elements of matter are permanent circulatory patterns in the frictionless ideal gas of the all-pervading Aether triggered by the universally existing torque of differential rotation. The concept of the donut-vortex shows the possible existence of such patterns with their potential to form interlocking complexes of different constructions and various sizes.
Predictably, similar designs can be achieved for the kinematics of the internal structure of elementary particles and thereby an explanation for their different fields in the medium and through that, the forces exerted on one another. Having a rarefying effect on the medium within their space of origin, a tendency is created for random cloud formations and their rotational separation.
Atoms, molecules, crystals and their conglomerates are organized from elementary particles and sustained by electromagnetic activity. The lines and tubes and fields of electromagnetic forces, as it was already established in the nineteenth century, are also circulatory patterns in the Aether, produced by the sink-source action of the elements and their elementary particles.
It is assumed that the formation of ponderable matter begins with the Hydrogen atom, the nucleus of which is a single proton, holding a single electron in orbit. Through a step by step evolutionary process, more complex nuclei are formed out of protons and neutrons, which capture free electrons equal in numbers with those of the protons.
Atoms are bound into molecules in gases by their interlocking force fields. The molecular cohesional forces tie together immense numbers of atoms, producing fluids and solids on all levels of complexity. Each minute change in this evolution requires a re-arrangement in the construction of the bond between these elements of matter and calls for a more complex network of electromagnetic force-fields to sustain the equilibrium of the new state.
The formation of particles, nuclei, atoms etc. and the complex network of the electromagnetic structure; that is, the formation of all circulatory drifts of the Aethrons in various shapes and sizes proceeds under the constant pressure of the random, isotropic medium. Consequently, in agreement with Bernoulli's theorem, as the Aethrons are being organized into these dynamic constructions of matter and accumulating drift-velocities, their static pressure, rectangular to the drifts decreases in proportion. Thus, under the unchanged static pressure of the external medium, the Aethrons involved, are gradually condensed into a smaller and smaller volume of space compared to what the same number of Aethrons have occupied by their initially random oscillation.
As a result, there are two evident kinematical consequences of the formation and evolution of matter:
a) When some part of the Aether is condensed into a smaller volume of space, the local procedure produces a proportional rarefaction around and within the 'matter', which is constantly re-adjusted by an in-flow of the surrounding isotropic medium. As it was discussed earlier in connection with the ideal gas, this radial drift toward the sink, the state of motion of a test-particle can be described in Newton's concepts in a way that its radial component is a result of the constant, centripetal force of gravity and its tangential component is determined by Kepler's Laws.
Thus, whenever and wherever matter is forming and evolving it can be considered as the center of an in-flow, which consumes Aethrons at a steady rate from the surrounding medium and therefore equivalent with a sink of matter.
This phenomenon appears everywhere in the observable Universe in various sizes and capacities, at all ages at concomitant levels of evolution and seemingly in an infinite chain of orders of magnitude. In modern terminology these evolutionary stages of matter are called rotating gas-clouds, proto-stars, proto-planets, planets, suns, red giants, white dwarfs, quasars, black-holes and in the higher orders of magnitude, galaxies, galactic clusters, super clusters, etc.
The two most common characteristics of these sinks of matter are Rotational Gravitation and the gradual condensation of kinetic energy into the various states of matter.
The evolution starts with the formation of elementary particles, nuclei and the atoms of Hydrogen. Eventually and by chance, these formations gather into rare gas-clouds, form a core in their densest part and, due to the differential rotation of the one stage higher order of magnitude, the cloud start rotating.
From here on Rotational Gravitation and the immensity of chaotic chances drives the evolution all the way up to the super heavy solids with mean densities exceeding that of water by a factor of 500,000.
To point out the plausibility of this hypothesis, it should be noted, that the volume of space taken up by the orbit of the most inner electron of an atom is ten thousand times greater than the volume of the nucleus. Therefore, the electromagnetic tie between nucleus and orbiting electron reaches through distances comparable in proportion to the vast space in the solar system.
From the stand-point of Aethro-kinematics, this vast, allegedly empty space, is filled with vorticity and the interlocking electromagnetic force-patterns of the all-pervading Aether, forming and re-forming, adjusting and re-adjusting to each minute mutation of matter through unthinkable distances in all orders of magnitude of the Cosmos.
On the one hand, there is a slow, step by step evolution of the elements on all levels of complexity, but the most minute changes in the microcosmic structure of matter involves the consumption of comparatively great quantities of Aethrons.
On the other hand, the small extent of this consumption and the magnitude of the proportional gravitational Aether-drift can be judged from the experimental fact, that the strength of the force of gravity is 1036 (trillionītrillion) weaker than that of the electromagnetic forces. Recall, how a tiny horseshoe magnet picks up a nail from the floor when it gets in its vicinity, doing it with ease against the colossal gravitational mass of the whole Earth.
Consequently, the rate of the evolutionary process of matter, the capacity of the resulting sink, and that of the consumption of Aether can be comparatively slow and small.
The consumption of the number of Aethrons per unit time is equivalent to Newton's qualitative concept of gravitational mass. The kinematical effects of the spiral vortex are equivalent to Huygens' centripetal acceleration and Kepler's formula for the angular velocities of the planets on their elliptical orbits.
Hence, in a rough sketch, the kinematical description of Newton's earthly and celestial mechanics and the conceptual simulation of their origin and maintenance in the ideal, isotropic, all-pervading Aether is completed.
b) There is a tendency parallel with the evolution of matter from the initially random motion of the Aethrons toward the organized dynamic stream-lines of the particles and binding forces among them, which is equivalent to the general tendency of condensation of kinetic energy into ponderable matter. In Aethro-kinematics, it is called:
The quantity of matter is proportional to the number of Aethrons involved in the dynamic flow-patterns organized into particles and force fields. - If in some forceful way the condensed state of these organized patterns were broken up and the Aethrons were forced out of their permanent flows, they would regain their initial gaseous state of random motion and expand into the surrounding space with their average velocity, equal to that of light.
The immense kinetic energy, freed by the de-condensation of matter, can be expressed by the above mentioned mathematical equation: E = mc
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(Part III.) ______________________